At a time of growing concern over the rising costs and long-term environmental impacts of the use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy, wind energy has become an increasingly important sector of the electrical power industry, largely because it has been promoted as being emission-free and is supported by government subsidies and tax credits. However, large numbers of bats are killed at utility-scale wind energy facilities, especially along forested ridgetops in the eastern United States. These fatalities raise important concerns about cumulative impacts of proposed wind energy development on bat populations. This paper summarizes evidence of bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in the US, makes projections of cumulative fatalities of bats in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands, identifies research needs, and proposes hypotheses to better inform researchers, developers, decision makers, and other stakeholders, and to help minimize adverse effects of wind energy development.
- Bat mortality due to wind turbines in Canada
- Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada
- Origins and migratory patterns of bats killed by wind turbines in southern Alberta: evidence from stable isotopes
- Red aviation lights on wind turbines do not increase bat–turbine collisions
- Continental-scale, seasonal movements of a heterothermic migratory tree bat